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Articles Informational Topics Solar Panel

The Process Of Solar Panel Manufacturing- A Complete Process

A solar panel features a set of solar cells to convert solar energy into electric energy.

The surge in the energy crisis has made solar panels the must-have device of every home and workplace, regardless of how expensive they are.

The Process of Solar Panel Manufacturing

Thus, many companies are participating in the Process Of Solar Panel Manufacturing.

The primary material used to manufacture solar panels is silicon. However, various solar panels are also made up of monocrystalline or polycrystalline.

The quality and efficacy of the Solar panel manufacturing process identify the success of the process.

So with the high ratio of switching, it is preferable to walk through this article and explore a few things about solar panel manufacturing.

The Process Of Solar Panel Manufacturing

The process of manufacturing requires steps that you must follow carefully.

The primary material for manufacturing solar power is silicon, easily accessible on Earth.

The silicon is purified and then used to make photovoltaic (PV) cells, which convert the sun’s heat into energy.

Manufacturers protect the cells by using a glass sheet that passes the sunlight to the cells without any hindrance.

After receiving heat, the cells of silicon dioxide produce current, which changes to AC energy through an inverter.

Wirings are used at the assembling stage and are fastened to the cells that pass between the glass and the back sheet.

An aluminum frame is added to hold each part of the solar panel. It also protects the panel from severe weather conditions.

It is just a small process of solar panel manufacturing; the detailed manufacturing guide is mentioned below.

The Process Of Solar Power Manufacturing: Step-By-Step Guide

Solar panels are a great alternative to electricity produced by government-owned power stations.

Due to high power costs, people start using solar panels and enjoy several benefits such as 24 hours electricity and reduced energy costs.

Let’s check the process of solar panel manufacturing in detail.

Purification Of Silicon:

Solar panels are made of silicon, an easily accessible element on the planet after Oxygen.

It is available on rocks, water, sand, and clay, and you must purify it before using it in solar power manufacturing.

It needs to boil at 1410 degrees centigrade for purification. Solar panels can be polycrystalline or monocrystalline; both are different in manufacturing, efficiency, and cost.

Of these two types, monocrystalline only uses one silicon crystal; hence it is highly efficient, but it costs more.

The case is the opposite in polycrystalline, where manufacturers use many silicon crystals. Although it costs you less, it is not efficient.

Making Ingots:

The first step in solar panel manufacturing is the collection of silicon from various places, which is then gathered in the form of rocks.

When it melts at extreme temperatures, several rocks make a cylindrical shape known as ingots.

The same-shaped furnace has to be used to give silicon a cylinder-type form.

For making positive electric polarity, Boron is added to silicon.

The manufacturer must pay attention during the melting phase to flawlessly align all the atoms in the required shape.

Once finished making ingots, let them cool and perform polishing and grinding tasks.

Making Wafers From Ingots:

The third step of solar panel manufacturing is the making of wafers. For this purpose, the ingots have to be cut into thin disks; for an accurate finish, it is suggested to use the wire saw.

Through this saw, you can save time by cutting many thin disks at once.

As pure silicon is used in making solar panels, remember that it is shiny, and that is why it reflects more light.

A thin layer of anti-reflecting is applied to the disks to prevent the loss of sunlight. The coating is typical of silicon oxide, or you can also use titanium oxide coating.

For cleaning the marks of the saw, the wafer can be polished further, but it is up to you because some experts believe it is unnecessary to clean the marks; after all, they help increase the efficiency of solar panels.

Making Of Solar Cells:

After wafers, the next step is making solar cells responsible for converting sunlight into electricity. A metal conductor is attached to the surface of each wafer, giving it a grid matrix-type look.

The performance of the panel is dependent on the silicon type and cells. The coating absorbs more sunlight and converts it into electricity, preventing energy loss.

The PV cell base is a thin wafer with p-type (positive-boron) silicon or n-type (negative-phosphorus) silicon.

The positive and negatively charged wafers are vital for the excellent functioning of PV cells.

Different types of cells are available that give different types of performance, such as split cells, multi-busbar cells(MBB), half-cut cells, and shingled cells with thin wafer strips, so you have to do proper research, know the benefits of each and pick them as per your needs.

Conversion Of Solar Cells To Solar Panels:

After finishing making solar cells, it is time to join them and make a proper solar panel ready to produce cost-effective electricity.

Manufacturers take many cells, join them with metal connectors and form a structure that looks like a matrix.

For home use, typically, the suggested solar panel is the one having 48 cells. Contrary to this, the 60 to 72-cell solar panel is recommended for large industrial areas.

The thing used for connecting various cells is called a bus bar and helps the current flow in the cells via a circuit.

Addition Of Glass Sheet:

As the solar panels are installed on the roofs where they can catch direct sunlight, the manufacturer adds glass sheets.

It will protect the PV cells from extreme weather, such as dust or thunderstorms.

The thickness of glass ranges from 3.0 to 4 mm, and it is better to go for tempered glass solar panels as they provide more protection from unexpected accidents.

Many companies also prefer to use another glass type that is highly transmissive because of a coating that prevents heat loss.

Attachment Of Frame:

An aluminum frame is necessary because it acts as a protective material for the edges and gives the panel a strong structure.

The structure helps keep the solar panel in place because you have to bear the loss if it falls. The frame is lightweight and capable of bearing bad weather such as hail storms or strong winds.

Mostly, the frame comes in black or silver color, and corners are pressed or screwed with each other to add firmness.

One more thing the manufacturer adds to keep the cells in place is ethylene vinyl acetate or EVA, which is a polymer and a clear plastic layer that tightly holds the cell in place.

Always use the long-lasting EVA, an excellent material for eliminating moisture contact and keeping the cells safe from shock and vibrations.

Adding Back Sheet:

The back layers of the solar panels provide safety to electrical insulation from moisture, dust, and debris.

It is made of PVF, PP, plastic, or polymers, is highly resistant to UV, and provides thermal resistance.

Junction Box:

It is a tiny box and is present on the solar panel’s rear side. It is the main point where cells connect, so they must remain safe from dirt and water contact.

It is required to attach the cable safely to the panel connectors.

Types Of Solar Panels:

There are various solar panels, including thin film panels, polycrystalline, and Monocrystalline.


Investors who can afford high-priced solar panels can invest in Monocrystalline. The monocrystalline panels have cells that are made of silicon’s one crystal.

Due to this specification, they are highly efficient but burden the pocket.


The Polycrystalline panels are manufactured when the panel developer melts various silicon crystals at once.

Though Polycrystalline is not different from Monocrystalline in looks, it is different in terms of efficiency and price.

Thin-Film Solar Panels:

The third type of solar panel is the thin-film panel used for utility-scale projects.

Utility-scale projects produce only 10 MW of electricity; they are not so efficient and hence are not recommended for large-scale projects.

They do not have solar cells, instead made of a thin layer of cadmium tellurium or amorphous silicon, known as photovoltaic substances.

They are easy to make but are not recommended for offices and homes due to their short life.


The process of solar panel manufacturing is not as complicated as it is considered; the proper steps can take manufacturers so far and help them build long-lasting and reliable solar panels. This article has brought a step-by-step guide for a solar developer to successfully manage from a micro project to robust solar panel-making projects. While manufacturing solar panels for a client, don’t forget to consider the customer’s customized requirements – material, size, etc. Make sure to deliver the project on time and beyond the client’s demands.

Video Help:

If you want to know more, watch the below video.

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About the author

Anthony Miller

Hello Guys! I am Anthony Miller, a high dynamo, communicative author, and editor of the Renewable Cop, always providing amazing, engaging, informative, unique, highly researched, and verified content based on all sorts of generators. Read more.

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