Warning: Undefined array key 1 in /home/u668494703/domains/renewablecop.com/public_html/wp-content/themes/voice/core/helpers.php on line 518

Warning: Trying to access array offset on value of type null in /home/u668494703/domains/renewablecop.com/public_html/wp-content/themes/voice/core/helpers.php on line 518

Warning: Undefined array key 1 in /home/u668494703/domains/renewablecop.com/public_html/wp-content/themes/voice/core/helpers.php on line 518

Warning: Trying to access array offset on value of type null in /home/u668494703/domains/renewablecop.com/public_html/wp-content/themes/voice/core/helpers.php on line 518
Articles Informational Topics Solar Panel

What Are Photovoltaic Cells Made Of? A Complete Guide

A commonly requested subject is what are photovoltaic cells made of and how they are manufactured.

Then again, solar panels are made from many solar cells that all work together to receive sunlight and turn it into power.

This article explains what photovoltaics are, how they will be manufactured, and the many materials used to make them.

With solar energy being one of the most promising energy sources soon, there will surely be more customers curious about them and their composition.

So, without wasting time, let’s get right into it, so you can go ahead and make your first purchase.

What Are Photovoltaic Cells Made Of?

The PV cell is made of semiconductor material capable of conducting electricity far better than a conventional insulator but not as well as a solid conductor as some other metals.

PV cells make use of different types of semiconductor materials.

When the cells are exposed to light, the semiconductors absorb the light and heat energy from the Sun and change it into negatively charged ions in the material, known as electrons.

This increased energy permits electrons to flow as an electrical charge throughout the material.

The newly generated current is collected through conductive material connections and utilized to light up your home and the remainder of the electricity network.

What Are Photovoltaic Cells?

Photovoltaic Cells, often called Solar Panels, use sunshine to create energy. Solar cells are semiconductor materials that collect sunlight and convert it to energy.

Photovoltaic cells are electrically linked and neatly grouped onto a huge frame known as the solar panel.

At the moment, solar panels used for home purposes can only convert approximately 20% of the sunshine they receive into power.

This is referred to as solar efficiency. There are various types of solar cells available for industrial and commercial applications.

One of the best aspects of solar energy is the ongoing advancement of the industry, which raises overall efficiency and quality.

This is projected to grow much further with additional research and development.

Similarly, as these factors improve, the cost of solar panels is likely to reduce, making them more affordable to a larger number of people.

How Do Photovoltaic Cells Work?

However, the electrons must all move in the same direction to generate an electric current. This is accomplished by the use of two forms of Silicon.

The exposed silicon layer is doped with phosphorus atoms, which have one more electron than the Silicon.

In contrast, the opposite side is coated with boron atoms, which have fewer electrons.

The resultant sandwich functions similarly to a battery: the layer with excess electrons will become the negative terminal, while the one without electrons will become the positive terminal.

At the confluence of the two layers, an electrical field is formed.

When photons excite electrons, an electric field sweeps them to the n-side, while holes travel to the p-side.

Electrons are guided to the electrical connections on both sides before passing in the form of electricity to the external circuit.

This generates a direct current. The top of the Cell is coated with an anti-reflective coating to reduce light loss due to the surface reflection.

Materials Found In Photovoltaic Cells:

Photovoltaic Cells are created by stacking multiple thin slices of solar cells on top of one another.

There are several distinct varieties of photovoltaics, and the way they differ is determined by the material utilized for the Photovoltaic layers.

The categories are as follows:

  • Amorphous Silicon
  • Cadmium telluride
  • Copper indium gallium selenide
  • Organic PV cells

Photovoltaic Cells are the least expensive alternative to solar cells and are also the lowest in efficiency.

Thin film solar cells, on the other hand, offer the most future potential.

Why Is Silicon Used In Photovoltaic Cells?

Silicon semiconductors are famous for their low weight-to-volume ratio, longer life cycle, resilience, and strength.

Silicon semiconductors are inexpensive to fabricate. A silicon solar panel is a solar panel built of silicon semiconductors.

Collecting PV cells in a restricted panel acts as a solar energy collector.

In power stations, silicon solar panels supply the energy required to boil water and generate steam, turning turbines to generate electricity.

They can be used to replace nonrenewable energy sources.

Silicon solar panels installed on rooftops or backyards can provide primary or backup electricity to business organizations like residences.

These uses reflect that Silicon might be the future of electricity production through different methods.

Photovoltaic Cell Efficiency:

The efficiency of a cell is the percentage of electrical power generated by sunlight received.

The cells are joined into panels, which are then built into arrays to test efficiency.

The panels are then put before a solar simulator, which simulates perfect sunshine conditions: 1,000 Watts per cubic meter at a temperature of 25 °C.

The system’s electrical power, or maximum power, is a proportion of the energy from the sun.

A panel of one square meter that produces 200 Watts of electric energy has a 20 percent efficiency. A PV cell’s greatest theoretical efficiency is roughly 33%.

Stages Of Developing Photovoltaic Cells:

Developing Photovoltaic Cells is a long process, but considering how it generates cleaner energy, the whole process can be deemed worth it.

The stages are as follows:

  • Stage 1 – Purification.
  • Stage 2 – Making Crystal Silicon.
  • Stage 3 – Making Silicon Wafers.
  • Stage 4 – Doping.
  • Stage 5 – Placing Electrical Contacts.
  • Stage 6 – Coating with anti-reflective material.
  • Stage 7 – The encapsulation of the Cell.


We genuinely hope we have answered your question satisfactorily, and we hope the question “What are Photovoltaic Cells made of” doesn’t bother you as much as it used to. Solar energy, among other forms of energy production, is the way forward with all the technological advancements.

This article will help you make an educated decision when buying the right type of Solar Power system for your home or even commercial use, which will, in turn, help you save cash from buying a system that doesn’t fit your needs and requirements properly.

Video Help:

If you want to know more, watch the below video.

Post Disclaimer

Renewablecop is is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

About the author

Anthony Miller

Hello Guys! I am Anthony Miller, a high dynamo, communicative author, and editor of the Renewable Cop, always providing amazing, engaging, informative, unique, highly researched, and verified content based on all sorts of generators. Read more.

Leave a Comment